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 News - Events International
Some scientific paper`s review in The national scientific conference on infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS the 8th Asean conference on tropical medicine and parasitology 2018

Update of some carcinogenic zoonotic trematode and protozoan parasites in human beings; Variations in the human malarial parasite formula in hyperendemic zone of Krong Pa district, Gia Lai province, 2012-2016; The breeding site characteristic of Dengue and Zika virus vectors in three landcapes of Gialai province 2017...

1. Update of some carcinogenic zoonotic trematode and protozoan parasites in human beings

Nguyen Ngoc San1, Huynh Hong Quang2, Que Anh Tram3 (Military Institute of Preventive Medicine1, Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon2, Nghe An General Friendship Hospital3)

The International Agency for Research o­n Cancer (IARC) identifies ten infectious agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites) able to induce cancer disease in humans. Trematode infestations inside the human body occur worldwide, and these parasites are significant groups for carcinogenesis. Firstly, liver flukes (including Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis) are typical representatives causing cholangiocarcinoma-the second most common primary hepatic malignancy.

Secondly, blood fluke of Schistosoma haematobium has been linked to bladder cancer. Recently, several global reports suspected the potential association of other parasitic infections with the development of neoplastic changes in the animal and human host tissues, especially digestive malignancy due to Cryptosporidium parvum- a protozoan parasites.

O. viverrini is prevalent in Southeast Asia, infecting 10 million people while C. sinensis has a wider distribution in East Asia and several Southeast Asian countries, affecting more than 35 million people. In general, schistosomiasis have emerged as important tropical infections with an estimated 200 million people in the tropical belts of the world, and C. parvum is coccidians, oocysts-forming apicomplexan protozoa, which complete their life cycle both in humans and animals, the global burden of this disease is still underascertained, due to a conundrum transmission modality, o­nly partially unveiled, and o­n a plethora of detection systems still inadequate or o­nly partially applied for worldwide surveillance.

This overview shortly reviewed available database in the National Center Biotechnology Information (NCBI), WHO information center, Medscape, PubMed, Medlines, and The International Agency for Research o­n Cancer (IARC) o­n the involvement of parasites in neoplastic processes in humans or animals from 1970s through May 30, 2018, and especially focused o­n the potential carcinogensis possible of these protozoan and trematode infection. In general, many of results of basic evidence-based medicine research concluded some important parasite role in the etiology of cancer in human.

2. Variations in the human malarial parasite formula in hyperendemic zone of Krong Pa district, Gia Lai province, 2012-2016

Nguyen Duc Hong1, Ly Chanh Ty1, Huynh Hong Quang1, Tr?n Thanh S?n2 (1Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon, 2Quy Nhon University)

The WHO Global technical strategy for malaria 2016-2030, which sets out a vision for accelerating progress towards malaria elimination, but facing o­ne technical obstacle of changing Plasmodium spp. formula, lead to difficult to radical treatment in communites. This study conducted to assess the human malarial parasite formula in a long period for rational further action plans.

A retrospective study design o­n all malaria data from 2012 to 2016. Total of malaria parasitological confirmed case was 8448, highest cases distribution from annual april to september and from octorber to february next year, especially focused in communes of Chu Gu (1.074), Chu R?Cam (1.070), Ia D?reh (892), Ia R?mok (637), Ia Sai (602), Ia M?lah (599), and Phu Can (566). In formula of whole period 2012-2016 showed that P. falciparum of 4190 (49.6%), P. vivax of 4059 (48.08%) monoinfection, mixed infection of 198 (2.34%). In the year 2012, number of P. vivax was 2 folds more than P. falciparum (1102 vs. 563), and in the year from 2013 to 2016 with relatively equal between two species. Changing malaria parasite pattern in Krong Pa, Gia Lai lead to technical ostacle in malaria elimination roadmap.

3. The breeding sitecharacteristic of Dengue and Zika virus vectors in three landcapes of Gialai province 2017

Do Van Nguyen1, Nguyen Xuan Quang1, Huynh Hong Quang1 (Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon).

Dengue fever, o­ne of the most important emerging arboviral diseases in Central highland Vietnam, is transmitted through the bite of container breeding mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Develop and apply cost-effective, evidence-based approaches to identify and respond to Dengue outbreaks. A cross sectional study was carried out for 6 survey times in both rainy and dry seasons in three districts/city in Gia Lai province including Pleiku city, Dak Po and Kong Chro districts. The results showed that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larva were found in all of sites in which there were more Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus larvae.

All Ae. aegypti larval index were higher than Ae. albopictus larval index in all three landscapes and both seasons. Similarly, the number of positive water containers were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season in all sites (p<0,01). In Pleiku, the number of positive containers were more 10 container types for Ae. aegypti larvae and 3 types of positive containers for Ae. albopictus larvae. Buckets were the highlight containers in households (31.73%) followed byflower pots (14.47%) and others (3.12%).

In Dak Po, there were more 11 positive container types with Ae. aegypti larvae and o­nly 4 types of positive container with Ae. albopictus larvae. Buckets were also the highlight container in households (24.19%) followed by waste container (20.2%) and the lowest container was coconut shells (0.52%). In Kong Chro, there were more 11 positive container types with Ae. aegypti larvae higher than in positive container types with Ae. albopictus larvae. The bucket was highlight of container in households (23.33%) followed by cement tanks (15.52%) andtree holes had the lowest number (0.38%).

Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larva were found in all of breeding sites, all Ae. aegypti larval index were higher than Ae. albopictus larval index in all three landscapes and both seasons. Buckets still provide suitable habitats for Aedes spp.

4. The insecticide susceptibility tests of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses in Central West highland Viet Nam

Do Van Nguyen, Nguyen Xuan Quang, Huynh Hong Quang (Institude of Malariology, Parasiology and Entomology Quy Nhon).

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the two main vectors of important human diseases virus, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika. These diseases were prevalant  in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Three of 5 these diseases were identified in Viet Nam including Dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus in which Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease with about 70,000-80,000 cases every year. There is curently no commercial vaccine or specific antiviral drug treatment for dengue, chikungunya or zika virus infection. People infected should be protected from further mosquito exposure during the first few days of illness to prevent other Aedes mosquitoes from becoming infected and reduce the risk of local transmission. The control of three disease based o­n insecticides to control the vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Classes of pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes especially during diseases outbreaks. This study was conducted to provide information o­n the susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus against insecticides in different types of landscape of Gia Lai and Binh Dinh provinces belong to Central west Highland in 2017. Samples of Aedes larvae and pupae were collected from breeding sites of various containers both indoors and outdoors including buckets, jars, flower plots, cement cisterns, discarded tyres and tanks by research group from Institude of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology Quy Nhon. The field collected larvae were transferred to the insectary of Entomology Departerment and after Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus adult obtained from F1 generation were fed with 10% glucose and used for insecticide susceptibility tests by the standard WHO test kit method.

Susceptibility test was conducted o­n the adult mosquitoes using alphacypermethrin 30mg/m2, lambdacyhalothrin 0,05%, deltamethrine 0,05%, permethrin 0,75% alphacypermethrin 30mg/m2 and malathion 5% impregnated paper embedded in World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic test kit following standard procedure. The final mortality was determined at 24h post exposure time. The results indicated that Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in all the study sites were resistant against lambdacyhalothrin, deltamethrin, permethrin v alphacypermethrin. However, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were still susceptibleto malathion with 100% mortality rate in all of sites belongs to both provinces.

5. Some immunological manifestations among the seropositive-anti toxocara spp. in people at the Hoa Hao Medic Medical Center in Ho Chi Minh city, 2017

Le ?inh Vinh Phuc1, Nguyen Bao Toan1, Huynh Hong Quang2 (1Medic Medical Center in Ho Chi Minh city, 2Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon)

Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis with a worldwide distribution but is under diagnosed and under estimated impact o­n human health. These parasites are usually directly transmitted to the human host via the faecal-oral route and can cause toxocariasis and associated complications, including allergic and neurological disorders. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers this parasitosis among the five parasitic diseases that require public health actions. Serologic studies in human some geographical areas have shown prevalence rates around 8.7-50.6%. The aim of this study is to describe immunity features and determine the correlation of peripheral eosinophilia, total IgE, and several predictive values in Toxocara spp. infection.

The descriptive cross-sectional study design in screened-seropositive case series with anti-Toxocara IgG. Total of screened 1427 patients with ELISA serodiagnosis, proportion of positive anti-Toxocara IgG 41.6%, increased total IgE n?ng ?? IgE (? 130 IU/mL) 57.6%, peripheral eosinophilia (? 7%) 9,1%. When eosinophil make positive anti-Toxocara IgG risk of 1.2 times, and the increased total IgE make positive anti-Toxocara IgG risk of 1.34 timescompared to unincreased groups, respectively.

Correlation between eosinophil and total IgE level is positive correlation. The positive predictive value of Toxocara spp. infection when both increased eosinophilia and total IgE are 52%. The negative predictive value of Toxocara spp. infection when o­ne of these (increased either eosinophilia or total IgE) is 59.2%.

In parallel with epidemiological and clinical factors, immunological aspect are an important components for diagnosis and follow-up progress after human toxocariasis treatment.

6. Human Plasmodium ovalemalarial infestation identified by morphological and molecular biology analysis in Central coast Central Vietnam

Nguyen Thi Minh Trinh1, Huynh Hong Quang1, Tran Thanh Son2, Le Phuoc Thien1 (1Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon, 2Quy Nhon University)

Malaria is still an important health problem. In 2016, there were 216 million cases of malaria in 91 countries, 445,000 people died from malaria globally (WHO, 2017). For more than 100 years, malaria diagnosis is largely based o­n microscopy-a gold standard and rapid disgnostic tests. In recent wide-scale molecular applying, the number of species of human malaria parasites has increased from four to six (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. knowlesi, P. ovale curtisi, and P. ovale wallikeri). So far, the distribution of P. ovale (Charles F. Craig, 1900) was thought to be limited to sub-Saharan Africa, Southern and Southeastern Asia, and Indonesian islands, but now in this case report of rare P. ovalein both morphological and molecular analysis detected in Central coast Vietnam.

A blood sample collected o­n the patient presenting with typical malaria symptoms. Parasitaemia was calculated as 2246 per microlite with typical morphological feature by two Level 1 certified WHO microscopists. Genomic DNA was prepared from two dry blood spots (DBS) o­n filter papers using the DNA extraction of Qiagen kit, and Snounou G?s nested-PCR procedures (1993).Both morphological and molecular genetic analyses suggest that P. ovale in the patient. Adequate clinical and parasitological response to standard chloroquin dose.

P. ovale was recognized within Ninh Thuan where malaria is hyperendemic area. In the near future, need to be analyse either classic or variant forms (P. ovale curtisi, and P. ovale wallikeri) of P. ovale in this province.

7. A case report of cutaneous pseudo-larva migrans due to hair fragment

Tran Thi Hue Van1, Phan Anh Tuan1, Nguyen Thanh Liem1, Huynh Hong Quang2 (1University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Ho Chi Minh,2Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon).

Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) or larva currens is the most common tropically acquired dermatosis whose earliest description dates back more than 100 years. Possible causes are larva infestation of several nematode, such as hookworm from dogs/ cats (Ankylostoma brazilienseAnkylostoma caninum), Gnathostoma spinigerum or Strongyloides stercoralis..Cutaneous larva migrans manifests as an erythematous, serpiginous, pruritic, cutaneous eruption caused by accidental percutaneous penetration and subsequent migration of larvae of various nematode parasites. Cutaneous larva migrans is most commonly found in tropical and subtropical geographic areas, including Vietnam.

This case report is a male boy, 2 years old currently living in Thu Dau Mot town, Binh Duong province. He hospitalized in Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh city with erythematous rash, serpiginous line, 3.5cm in length, and at the end of this line have short black fragment.

Dissection and laboratory analysis of black fragment with final conclusion of hair fragment. Human hair fragments penetrating the skin may produce a variety of different clinical pictures, o­ne of the most peculiar of these resembles larva migrans. The clinical doctor need to exam and analysis critically for prompt treatment.

8.Species identification of Gnathostoma spp. (Owen 1836) by molecular marker o­n a case of cutaneous larva migrans

­Tran Thi Hue Van1, Le Dinh Vinh Phuc2, Nguyen Thu Huong3, Huynh Hong Quang4 (1University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Ho Chi Minh city, 2Medic Medical Center in Ho Chi Minh city, 3National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology, 4Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon).

Gnathostomiasis is an important parasitic disease in humans, most of them are muco-cutaneous and visceral larva migrans, some rare cases of neurognathostomiasis with severe complications, even death. To describe the clinical and paraclinical parameters of o­ne male case of cutaneous larva migrans.

A 33 years-old man patient who living in Ho Chi Minh city as tourist guider presented with intermittent swelling, tortuous migratory creeping eruption, itching, rash and painful o­n patient?s forearm. Step by step, rumble itchs spread all over the forearm. In case of history involved ingrilled frogs eating. Hence, preliminary diagnosis was subcutaneous migrant by parasite. A complete blood count result RBC of 5.060.000 cells/mm3 and WBC 8.830 cells/mm3, in which 50.7% neutrophile,35.3% lymphocyte, and 10.7% eosinophile.

Serological test for some routine parasite was carried out showed positive anti-Gnathostoma spp. IgG, and lesions?s area have resected by surgeon, histological analysis and species identification by molecular marker is Gnathostoma spinigerum DNA was extracted and amplified targeting the partial cox1 gene and the ITS-2 region of ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that adult worms was Gnathostoma spinigerum Owen, 1836. Final diagnosis was cutaneous larva migrans due to G. spinigerum.

This patient was radical treated by resection plus single dose of Ivermectine and 14-day course of albendazole. Subcutaneous larva migrans is popular form of human gnathostomiasis with migratory subcutaneous swelling. Serological tests and histological analyse may be helpful in diagnosis and radical cures in such cases.

9. Broad-spectrum clinical manifestations o­n human gnathostomiasis due to Gnathostoma spinigerum at Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon, 2016-2017

Tran Thi Hue Van1, Nguyen Thu Huong2, Nguyen Van Chuong3Huynh Hong Quang3 (1University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Ho Chi Minh city, 2National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology, 3Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon).

Gnathostoma spinigerum is a parasitic nematode that causes gnathostomiasis in humans, also known as its clinical manifestations are creeping eruption, cutaneous, visceral and ocular larva migrans, the larval nematode is acquired by eating raw or undercooked fish and meat. In the presented study, we analysed some clinical manifestations o­n human gnathostomiasis by each organ or tissues groups.

The descriptive crosss-sectional study design for human gnathostomiasis case series. Total of 112 patients enrolled in this study with many different symptoms, any organs or tissues in the body are involved: mucocutaneous features (82.14%), itching and urticaria (75%), skin rash or rouge lines (33.93%), sporadic rashes (19.64%), cutaneous larva migrans (11.61%). o­n the neurological system (45.53%), headache (35.71%), dizziness without headache (27.68%), sleeping disorders, epecially insomnia (6.25%).

On the respiratory system (7.14%), with intermittent thorax discomfort (3.57%). o­n the digestive troubles included of abdomen pain (21.43%), epigastric pain (17.86%), loose stool disorder (8.04%), nausea plus anorexia (4.46%). o­n the Ophthalmological organ, peri-eyelid muscle pain (6.25%), vision blurred (5.36%), and diplopia (4.46%). Peripheral blood eosinophil (32.14%).

In human gnathostomiasis due to Gnathostoma spinigerum, the clinical manifestations are broad-spectrum o­n any organs and tissues in the patients body. Hence, all clinical practioners need to note for early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

10. Molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial DNA gene in Gnathostoma spp from 2nd intermediate hosts

Tran Thi Hue Van1, Le Duc Vinh2, Nguyen Kim Thach2, Huynh Hong Quang3, Nguyen Thu Huong4 (1University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Ho Chi Minh, 2Univeristy of Medicine Pham Ngoc Thach, 3Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon (IMPE), National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology (NIMPE).

Human gnathostomiasis is an important food-borne parasitic zoonosis, caused mainly by eating raw or uncooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, swamp eels. Getting into the human body, the advanced third stage larvae can migrate and harm to many different organs, especially in central nervous system, even death. In the present study, we molecular analysed the mitochondrial genome of Gnathostoma spp., which infected swamp eels.

The internal organs and muscles of swamp eels samples collected at from N center market of district 10, Ho Chi Minh city. Advance 3rd-stage larva (AdL3) were collected from livers and muscle tissues specimens of those swamp eels by the modified artificial pepsin digestion technique. Using molecular analysis to identify genus Gnathostoma spp. and G. spinigerum.

Total of collected 10 AdL3 larva samples, the morphological identification was the Gnathostoma spp, 100% was precisely identified genus of Gnathostoma spp. using PCR technique o­n mitochondrial DNA with specific Gn_COI primers of the cox-1 gene region. The G. spinigerumwas identified by mitochondrial DNA sequence with specific JB primers of the COI gene region, of 60%. This study has successfully identified the genus of Gnathostoma and G. spinigerum in the second intermediate host of spawm eels.

11.Some of clinical epidemiology features o­n human gnathostomiasis due to Gnathostoma spinigerum 2016-2017

Tran Th? Hue Van1, Huynh Hong Quang2, Le Dinh Vinh Phuc3 (1University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Ho Chi Minh, 2Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon; 3Hoa Hao Medical Center in Ho Chi Minh).

Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne parasitic infection that results from the human ingestion of the third-stage larvae of nematodes within the genus Gnathostoma in the second intermediate host, such as pigs, chickens, eels, and freshwater fishes. The most common species that infects humans is Gnathostoma spinigerum. G. spinigerum is endemic in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam. This study conducted to find out of clinical epidemiological aspects and larva-infective proportion of intermediate host.

With cross-sectional descriptive study design for clinical epidemiology, and larva infected second intermediate hosts.Total of 112 cases of seropositive Gnathostoma spinigerum ELISA, the patientss aged from or more 45 (41.07%) much higher than age group 15-30 of 15.18% (p < 0,001). In the gender, female (62.5%) and male (37.5%), school pupils and students (25%), state staffs (20.54%), housewife, unemployee (2.69%). Some risk factors are comsuming of raw or uncookedfish meat (71.43%), smoked or stir-fried frog meat (65.18%) (p < 0.001).

The patients come from Binh Dinh province (16.96%), both Daklak and Gia Lai province are equal (10.71%). Kinh ethnic (95.54%), other ethnic (4.46%). The clinical symptoms o­n the patients included skin and subcutaneous tissues (82.14%), neural system (44.64%), gastrointestinal tract (33.04%), vision disorders (11.61%), respiratory tract (6.25%). The time from symptom o­nset to healthcare providers varied from before 7 days (2.68%), 7-15 days (11.61%), from 15-30 days and 30-45 days are equal of 31.25%, after 45 days (23.21%). Flesh dissection of 3156 livers of freshwater fish, swamp eels showed that proportion of infective larva 2.57%.

Gnathostomiasis is an important parasiticzoonosis, any organ system can be involved, but the most common manifestation of infection is localized in mucocutaneous tissues, gastrointestinal and neural systems, and larva infected second intermediate hosts is concerned problems for our health.

12. Clinical manifestations and ivermectine effectiveness o­n human Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Duc Hoa district, Long An province, 2017

Le Duc Vinh1, Nguyen Kim Thach1, Huynh Hong Quang2 (1University of Medicine of Pham Ngoc Thach, 2Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon).

Human strongyloidiasis-the disease caused by the infection with Strongyloides stercoralis with an estimated 30-100 million people infected worldwide (Schar et al. 2013). These infections are commonly chronic and longstanding because of the autoinfective process associated with its unique life cycle. It is the reason why very difficult to treat them. Strongyloides stercoralis infection has broad-spectrum of clinical manifestations not o­nly gastrointestinal tract, but also occur in other organs and tissues in the body due to the migrating of the larvae. This study conducted to determine of symptoms proportion and single-dose ivermectine effectiveness in the treatment for human strongyloidiasis due to S. stercoralis.

A case seriesand descriptivecohort study design for clinical features desciption and non-controlled clinical trial of single-dose ivermectine study. Follow-up the effectiveness at 2, 4 and 6 weeks inteval after treatment.

A total of 50 of positive specimens with S. stercoralis larva, the proportion of each symptoms as followed: abdominal pain, tenderness 88% (44/50), irregular and intermittent loose stool 46% (23/50), swelling and urticaria 74% (37/50) o­n the arms of the body 81.1% (30/37), headache 78% (39/50), lose-weight 12% (6/50), and 4% (2/50) cases showed cutaneous larva migrans in the legs. The single-dose ivermectine cure rate of 96% (48/50), and 100% efficacy after repeated treatment without significant side-effects.

In gastrointestinal strongyloidiasis, the typical diversified symptoms with high rate (abdominal pain, loose stool, lose weight), and other symptoms of headache, cutaneous larva migrans. The single-dose ivermectine had high cure rate as the first of choice drug for human strongyloidiasis

13. Real-Time PCR-based diagnosis and identification of pathogenic Strongyloides spp. in community of Duc Hoa district, Long An province

Le Duc Vinh1, Nguyen Kim Thach1, Huynh Hong Quang2 (1University of Medicine Pham Ngoc Thach, 2Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon)

Human strongyloidiasis is mostly an asymptomatic infection, sometimes severe or even death in immunocompromised individuals. Strongyloides is a genus containing some 50 species of obligate gastrointestinal parasites of vertebrates (Speare et al., 1989). Species diagnosis and genomic sequence identification is very important for epidemiology and pathogenic prediction, but difficult due to current parasitological and serological technique?s limitation. This study was conducted to identify of Strongyloides genus and species by a Real-time PCR-based method o­n copro-DNA in stool samples.

Total of fresh stool samples were collected and examined by fresh fecal method and modified Sara culture for larva Strongyloides spp. collection. Using real-time PCR method identified the genus Strongyloides targeting o­n the 28S rRNAsequenses (GenBank U39490) and species identification of Strongyloides stercoralis o­n the 18S rRNAsequense (GenBank AF279916) and Strongyloides ratti o­n 28SrRNA sequences (GenBank DQ14570). Among those 50 colleted larval samples, morphological clarification of 100% genus Strongyloides, Real-time PCR-based analysis of 98% (49/50) S. stercoralis, and 2% (1/50) mixed infection S. stercoralis plus S. ratti.

The real-time PCR method showed that an important tool for pathogenic Strongyloides spp. diagnosis, combination of conventional morphology andmolecular diagnosis can be reliable for directly detecting the Strongyloides spp.

14. Clinical epidemiology manifestations in the patients with skin disorders due to ectoparasite of Demodex spp.

Tran Ngoc Duy1, Que Anh Tram2, Huynh Hong Quang3 (1Quy Hoa National Leprosy and Dermatology Hospital, 2Nghe An General Friendship Hospital, 3Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology Quy Nhon)

Demodex spp. are ectoparasite belonging arthropoda phylum which live off sebum oil and hair follicle in both skin of humans and animals. In the total of 65 different species, o­nly three species such as Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis can live o­n human body. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are the most common permanent ectoparasites in human. Clinical manifestations presensed of facial erythema, dryness, scaling, and roughness with or without papules/pustules is possibly due to proliferation of these Demodex population. Locations as the scalp, cheeks, nose, eyebrows and even the roots of eyelashes are places where follicle mites live often.

To describe several clinical epidemiological aspects by patients with skin dermatitis due to Demodex spp. Epidemiological cross-sectional study by describe a series of patients from 2016-2018. In total of9,750 patients who general skin problems, total 236 Demodex spp. monoinfection patients analysis showed female higher than male (74.58% vs. 25,42%), aged from ? 15-? 60 with highest proportion (82.2%), some risk or involved factors are suitable for medical literature. Typical clinical manifestations o­n skin included itching (83.9%), scaly skin (41.53%), rosacea dermatitis (33.05%), pustules (38.98%). Several other symptomes such as tickling, and crawling sensation at night, alopecia, loss of eyelashes, itching of the hair of the head, and itching ears. Dermatitis locations in scalp and hair roots (13.56%), facial skin (55.08%), both facial and hair follicle (26.27%), and the superficial folliculitis form (70.34%). Demodex dermatitis is neglected zoonotic ectoparasite, and researchers have noticed recently an increase in incidence of human demodicosis. Human demodex infestation showed that nonspecific signs and symptoms followed by skin pores and follicles lesions, it is easy to misdiagnosis with other skin problems. Clinicians must be clarified and critical thinking in different diagnosis.

15. Evaluation of emerging Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquin in Gia Lai province 2016-2017: in vivo 28 days clinical trial

Huynh Hong Quang1, Que Anh Tram2, Ly Chanh Ty1, Le Huu Loi3 (1Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon, 2Nghe An General Friendship Hospital, 3Kon Tum General Hospital)

In some recent years, in Gialai provine shown that Plasmodium vivax largely predominates over Plasmodium falciparum, and chloroquin is the first-line drug for vivax malaria in Vietnam over 65 years, and now how is the chloroquine response of P. vivax? The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of chloroquine to treat P. vivax malaria. Plasmodium vivax-infected patients aged > 6 months old were enrolled in Gia Lai 2016-2017. Chloroquine was administered at the standard dose of 25 mg base/kg body weight over three days. Patients were followed until day 28, according to the standard 2009 World Health Organization protocol. A total of 46 patients were enrolled in the study. Based o­n the per protocol analysis, adequate clinical and parasitological response was 95.24%, chloroquin resistant rate (2.38%), and new-infection of 2.38%. Mean parasite and fever clerance time was under 48 hours, and proportion of positive asexual form o­n day 3 (4.67%). For uncomplicated malaria, chloroquine still have high cure rate, but emerging resistance in Gia Lai. Further routine monitoring are required.

16. Anisakis spp: A marine parasites impact o­n human health from ocean

Tran Thanh Son1, Huynh Hong Quang2, Nguyen Van Chuong2, Que Anh Tram3 (1Quy Nhon university, 2Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon, 3Nghe An General Friendship Hospital)

Anisakiasis is a parasitic disease caused by anisakid nematodes (worms) that can invade the stomach wall or intestine of humans. The worm drills through the intestinal wall and lodges in muscle tissue, The parasite has a protective layer against gastric acid and survives burrowed into the gastric wall. In humans it cannot survive and dies within a few weeks. But the short time that it lives, it causes stomach pain and nausea, and other severe complications.

The transmission of this disease occurs when infective larvae are ingested from fish or squid that humans eat raw or undercooked. When certain infected marine mammals defecate into the sea, eggs are released and become infective larvae while in the water. These larvae are ingested by crustaceans, which are then eaten by fish or squid. o­nce inside the human body, the larvae can invade the gastrointestinal tract.

Eventually, the parasite dies and produces an inflamed mass in the esophagus, stomach, or intestine. Some people experience a tingling sensation after or while eating raw or undercooked fish or squid. This is actually the worm moving in the mouth or throat. These people can often extract the worm manually from their mouth or cough up. Also, some people experience vomiting as a symptom and this can often expel the worm from the body. Anisakiasis treatment is not always obligatory, doctor can diagnose anisakiasis gastroscopically. Depending o­n the severity of the infection, it might require different medical care. The larva can be removed surgically or during endoscopic technique, albendazole might kill it.

Anisakiasis cannot be transmitted human to human, and the best way for prevent anisakiasis-Do not eat raw or undercooked fish or squid. The FDA recommends the following for seafood preparation or storage to kill parasites as followed by cook seafood adequately to an internal temperature of at least 63C. And freezing fish at -20C or below for 7 days, or at -35C or below until solid, and storing at -35C or below for 15 hours, or at -35C or below until solid and storing at -20C or below for 24 hours.

17. Spatial distribution and aggregation of helminth parasites of two sympatric rodents in the rice granary of the Philippines

Diane Shiela C. Castillo1 and Vachel Gay V. Paller2 (Department of Environmental Science, College of Arts and Sciences, Central Luzon State University, Philippines1, Division of Animal Biology, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baos, Philippines2).

The two most common rodent species in the Philippines are Rattus tanezumi and Rattus norvegicus with the former inhabiting agriculture and the latter in residential areas. This study aims to determine the aggregation pattern and distribution pattern of rodents and its helminth fauna. Rodents were collected from live traps within the period of six months in five selected villages of Muoz, Nueva Ecija. The study shows that the helminth fauna of the two closely related host species was found out to harbour almost the same helminth parasites. This study revealed that R. tanezumi and R.norvegicus overlapped in distribution. This could attribute to the conversion of some agricultural land into commercial or residential areas. In addition, this study shows that R. tanezumi shows higher parasite mean intensity compared with R. norvegicus despite of their overlapping distribution. Furthermore, the over-all infection rate of R. tanezumi was higher compared with R. norvegicus, this could be attributed to the behaviour of R. tanezumi which is more territorial than R. norvegicus; the latter o­nly defend their immediate surroundings. The aggregation of helminth parasites of these two rodent species was also observed in this study. Maps were also formulated to determine the distribution of two Rattus sp. and their helminth parasites. The use of maps is an important tool for enhanced surveillance for control management and reduces associated health risk with rodent?s parasites.

18. Rasular varitations in land snails, intermidiate host of Dicrocoelium dendriticum

Mousa Tavassoli1*, Laya shamsi1, Soraya Naem1, Alireza Mahmoudian1, Elham Ahmadi2 (Department of Pathobiology,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, PO Box 165, Urmia, Iran; Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection (IRIPP) Research Department of Agricultural Zoology; Agricultural Zoology Museum P O Box 1454, Tehran, Iran

Snails are important as agricultural pests around the world. Some land snails play roles in the transmission of some parasites, especially Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Snails, such as Helicella spp. and Zebrina spp. are intermediated hosts of D. dendriticum, the important parasite in medicine and veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate radula variations of land snails, intermediate host of D.dendriticum.

In present study, snails were collected from different regions of Urmia, West Azerbaijan province, Iran during the years 2015 - 2017. Collected snails were identified based o­n identification keys. The radula of all identified specimens was extracted and stained using Mallory II. The Radula morphology, teeth length, and tooth formula of Zebrina hohenackeri, Helicella derbentina, Helicella krynickii were investigated. Results indicated that the mean length of radular teeth increased with the body size increased in examined Helicella snails and Zebrina snails. The shape of the central tooth in all examined snails was rectangular. The lateral teeth in the Helicella snails have a sharp tip but Zebrina hohenackeri snail have a folded end. The number of lateral teeth was higher in Zebrina snails than in the Helicella species. It was concluded that radular teeth morphology and morphometry within Helicella and Zebrina species could be used for identification of snails.

19. Detection of Trypanosoma spp. in Bandicota indica living in the Thai-Myanmar border area, Mae Sot district, Tak province, Thailand

Phuangphet Waree Molee1, Natthiya Sakulsak2 and Somchai Saengamnatdej1

1Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand 65000; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand 65000

Bandicota indica is o­ne of the important reservoir hosts of the zoonotic trypanosome which is the causative agent of trypanosomiasis and in public health surveillance particularly during the free flow of people in AEC (ASEAN Economic Community). The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of the Trypanosome infection in B. indica, which is o­ne in the important reservoirs living in the cadmium-contaminated area Maesot district, Tak province, and to study their phylogeny.

One hundred blood samples were taken from the animals and used in thin blood smear examination and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to detect the parasites. In the thin blood smear, Trypanosoma spp. were found in o­ne in five of the samples. The positive 623 bp DNA bands from PCR were found in 21 samples. The sequencing was proceeded and showed that almost all of them were Typanosama lewisi. Based o­n phylogenetic analysis, sixteen isolates of Trypanosoma spp. were closely related to Trypanosoma lewisi. These species infect rodent by utilizing fleas as vectors and also cause trypanosomiasis in human which must be prevented and controlled.

20. Stunting, micronutrient deficiencies, and helminth infections among primary school children at low and lower-middle income countries in asia and africa: a systematic review (2007-2017)

Fauzi Budi Satria1, Le Thi Huong2, Odilia Isabel Bermudez3, Rahayu Lubis4 (1International Master of Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam; 3Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, United States; 4Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia).

Most of stunting children lived in Asia and in Africa region. Not o­nly stunting, micronutrient deficiencies also affected the children in developing countries in those regions. In many developing countries, any nutritional disorders are aggravated by some infectious diseases. o­ne of most common infectious diseases in children is helminth infections, with the highest prevalence was found in 5 to 15 years of age children and become public health problem in low and lower-middle income countries.

This review study was conducted to describe and compare the prevalence of stunting, micronutrient deficiencies, and helminth infections prevalence among primary school children at low and lower-middle income countries in Asia and Africa from 2007 to 2017. Population target in this study is primary school children aged 6-15 years. The resources of this review study came from o­nline and offline databases. o­nline databases included PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google. Selected studies should be published journals from the low and low-middle income countries in last 10 years. A total of 423 selected articles from the various resources were exported to Endnote. Then all the references were filtered by reading the tittles to exclude duplicate resources and the abstracts to exclude resources with unmatched criteria such as children?s age range. Remaining references then were appraised by using appraisal tool and extraction tools from JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute). All these steps were recorded in PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) flow diagram. Finally, there were 46 of 423 references were selected in this review study.

In the last ten years, stunting and micronutrient deficiencies among primary school children in lower-middle income countries are higher in Africa, but the prevalence of helminth infections among primary school children in lower-middle income countries is higher in Asia region. Because of this review study can?t describe any evidence of stunting, micronutrient deficiencies among primary school children in low income countries from Asia due to lack of available resources, this study can?t compared the evidence between low income countries in Asia and Africa.

This review study concluded that generally prevalence of stunting, micronutrient deficiencies, and helminth infections among primary school children is higher in Africa than in Asia region, without considering the countries? income group.

21. Epidemiology and control of Congo fever in Halal Animals; Pakistan

Muhammad Fiaz Qamar, Arfan Zaman, Ehtasham ul Haq, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan and Kazim Ali (1Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore Pakistan).

The cases and deaths of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus commonly known as Congo virus (fatality rate 15%) has been reported throughout Pakistan from the last five years especially during religious occasion of Eid-ul-Azha. Death rates are accelerating every year demonstrates the importance of awareness of Congo fever at academia as well as public. Symptoms appear 1 to 9 days after tick bite, sudden high fever, aching muscles, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, sore eyes, jaundice, mood swings, confusion, aggression, and sensitivity to light. The other signs include Throat pain, Joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhages signs, and Bleeding from skin and large intestine.

Found in many species of wild and domestic mammals, including cattle, sheep, hares, goats, hedgehogs, mice and dogs. A least 31 species of ticks, Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Hyalomma are vectors and Transovarial, transstadial and venereal transmission occurs.

The virus attack the host immune system and manipulate the immune cells. Isolated from blood, plasma or tissues (liver, kidneys, lungs, spleen, bone marrow and brain). Mice inoculation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Enzyme-linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence assay, IgM (IgM-capture ELISA) and IgG (IgG-sandwich ELISA) antibodies against the CCHFV can be detected and quantified. Reverse Transcription Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP)

Oral Ribavirin: 2 gm loading dose; 4 gm/day in 4 divided doses (8 hourly) for 6 days; 2 gm/day in 4 divided doses for 6 days.

Two vaccines are under research, Education of general public, Tick control with acaricides, anti-CCHFV immunoglobulin. Take measures to prevent tick bites by using a repellent containing, Wear neutral-coloured garments, apply a permethrin spray to clothing avoid tall grasses and shrubs, Apply sunscreen, Avoid coming into contact with the blood or tissues of animals.

22. Rattus norvegicus as potential reservoir host for zoonotic parasites: Its Implication to public health

Aica Aquilam1 and Ruby Abao2 (1Institute of Biology, Caraga State University, Department of Biology, Ampayon Butuan City, Philippines).

Rodents play a significant role in public health as a biological reservoir of various parasitic zoonoses. Preliminary detection of zoonotic parasites among wild brown/ Norway rats Rattus norvegicus in selected backyard pig farms in Barangay Basag, Agusan del Norte was carried out to assess their potential as reservoir host for zoonotic parasites.

A total of fifteen R. norvegicus were caught alive using eight custom-made steel wire rat traps that were set within three weeks (during 17:00 to 06:00 hours) from January to February 2018. Of the fifteen examined rats, 100% were infected with zoonotic helminth endoparasites (%=prevalence rate; mean intensity) namely, four cestodes: Hymenolepis diminuta (66.7%; 155.7), Hymenolepis nana (33.3%; 989.2), Cysticercus fasciolaris (33.3%; 4), Taenia spp. (6.70%; 1); three nematodes: Hookworms (100%; 204.6), Angiostrongylus cantonensis (6.70%; 1507), Capillaria spp. (20%; 2.33); and o­ne trematode: Echinostoma spp. (6.70%; 222) were isolated. Infection rate has significant association to the farming practices (average farming experience rs=-0.402, p value=0.038; distance of pig pen and the neighboring household rs=0.402, p value =0.038), and rats body morphology such as the head-body size (rs=0.534, p value =0.040), length of the tail (rs=0.534, p value=0.040), and hind-foot measurement (rs=0.570, p value =0.026).

There is a possible cross-infection of hookworm between rats and backyard raised pigs. The result of the study indicates that there is a significant relationship between the zoonotic parasites level of infection to the rat?s behavior and morphology, presence of some susceptible host (pigs, stray dogs and cats) or vectors, and hygiene practices and the knowledge of the farmers pertaining to parasite transmission dynamics.

Thus, the results entail that rodents must be eliminated especially within the vicinity of the livestock farms. Moreover, community-based intervention programs for veterinary and public health aspects must be address and implement to prevent rodent-borne disease outbreak in the future.

23. Ovitrap surveillance for pre-release, during and post-release of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in au2 keramat, section 7 Shah Alam and Mentari court Petaling Jaya

Thohir Hasim, Muhammad Irfan Norman Francis Rudin, Mohd Arif Abdul Karim, Cheong Yoon Ling, Noor Afizah Ahmad, Nazni Wasi Ahmad & Han Lim Lee (Medical Entomology Unit, Institute for Medical Research, WHO Collaborating Centre for Ecology, Taxonomy & Control of Vectors of Malaria, Filariasis and Dengue, Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur).

Dengue fever is an ancient disease carried by Aedes species which causes public health, social and economic problem in the 21st century. It is o­ne of the major concerns worldwide. Thus, the urgency to discover solutions arises. The release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could be the solution for dengue. However, this method raises an important query whether the release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could increase the mosquito population size in the release sites. The objective of this study was to determine the ovitrap index for pre-release, during and post-release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

A series of ovitrapping using standard ovitrap procedure was conducted in three dengue endemic areas which are AU2 Keramat, Section 7 Shah Alam and Mentari Court Petaling Jaya (Selangor, Malaysia). A varied number of ovitraps were used based o­n the size of the release site, which were 172 in AU2 Keramat, 80 in Section 7 Shah Alam and 100 in Mentari Court Petaling Jaya respectively throughout the study duration. The ovitrapping was conducted biweekly pre-release, during and post-release to see whether the release activities have any impact o­n the mosquitoes population size in the release site. It was determined that no change in population size in post-release as compared to pre-release. The release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes did not caused a significant change o­n the population size in the release sites that may cause discomfort and irritation to the residents in the release sites. This may be due to the release of both males and females has equilibrated the population size due to the mating between Wolbachia-infected males and wild uninfected females which results in non-fertile eggs.

24. Prevalence of parasitic helminths in dogs and owners? practices o­n zoonotic diseases in Barangay poblacion, Kabacan, north Cotabato, Philippines

Mohammad Faisal S. Balimbingan1, Elma G. Sepelagio2, Cyrelle M. Besana2, Bryan Lloyd P. Bretaa2 and Leanne Jay S. Manceras2 (1Department of Secondary Education, College of Education, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, North Cotabato, 9407, Philippines; 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, North Cotabato, 9407, Philippines

Dogs are popular pets that live closely with humans and are known to provide companionship and security. However, these companion animals can act as vectors and carriers of diseases to humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of parasitic helminths in dogs and the practices of dog owners in selected 5 Puroks of Barangay Poblacion, Kabacan, North Cotabato. A total of 50 fecal samples (n = 10 for each Puroks) were collected from individual dogs and were processed and examined for parasites using direct fecal smear (DFS) and formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FEACT). Moreover, modified, structured and validated questionnaires were administered to 50 dog owners in order to determine the relationship of pet owner?s practices with the occurrence of zoonotic parasites o­n dogs.Adult dogs were recorded with the highest prevalence rate (72.2%). Furthermore, male dogs have higher prevalence rate compared to female dogs. A total of 32 (64%) dogs harboured 5 identified zoonotic parasites with hookworm being the most prevalent (50%), followed by Trichuris vulpis (24%), Toxocara canis (4%), Strongyle (8%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%). Feeding types (p = 0.00002) and seeking veterinary help and check-up (p = 0.00060) were identified as significant pre-disposing factors of helminthic infections in dogs in this study.

This study reports high helminth parasitism in dogs in Barangay Poblacion. It can be concluded in this study that feeding style and veterinary check-up have a significant association with parasite occurrence, and that proper pet care and management is highly encouraged among owners.

25. Evolutionary insights from newfound bat-borne Hantaviruses

Satoru Arai1, Son Truong Nguyen2, Vuong Tan Tu2, Blaise Kadjo3, Burton K. Lim4, Joseph S. Masangkay5, Saw Bawm6, Kyaw San Lin6, Keiko Tanaka-Taya1, Shigeru Morikawa1 and Richard Yanagihara7 (1National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; 2Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam; 3University of Flix Houphout-Boigny, Abidjan, Cte d?Ivoire; 4Royal o­ntario Museum, Toronto, Canada; 5University of the Philippines Los Baos, Laguna, Philippines; 6University of Veterinary Science, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar; 7University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA).

The discovery of greater genetic diversity among hantaviruses (order Bunyavirales, family Hantaviridae) harbored by shrews and moles (order Eulipotyphla) than by rodents (order Rodentia) has prompted a further exploration of bats (order Chiroptera) as reservoir hosts. Total RNA, extracted from frozen, ethanol-fixed or RNAlater-preserved archival tissues (lung, liver, kidney, intestine, intercostal muscle) and rectal swab/feces of 1,890 bats, representing 10 families (Emballonuridae, Molossidae, Mormoopidae, Nycteridae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae in the Yangochiroptera suborder, and Pteropodidae, Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae and Rhinopholidae in the Yinpterochiroptera suborder), collected in Asia (China, Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, Republic of Georgia, Vietnam), Africa (Cte d?Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia) and the Americas (Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana, USA) during 1981?2015, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by nested RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods.

Hantavirus RNAs were detected in 2 of 12 Neoromicia nanus from Cte d?Ivoire (Mouyassu virus, MOYV), 6 of 49 Hipposideros pomona and 1 of 5 Hipposideros cineraceus from Vietnam (Xuan Son virus, XSV), 1 of 12 Aselliscus stoliczkanus from Vietnam (Dakrong virus, DKGV), 2 of 13 Taphozous melanopogon from Myanmar (Laibin virus, LBV), and 1 of 15 Rousettus amplexicaudatus from the Philippines (Quezon virus, QZN). Multiple attempts to acquire whole genomes of the newfound hantaviruses were unsuccessful, except for DKGV and QZNV.Phylogenetic analyses indicated incongruent topologies for each genomic segment, presumably because of the limited sequences available for most of the hantaviruses harbored by bats, shrews and moles.Based o­n the host cytochrome b sequences, however, the phylogenetic positions of bats in the Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera suborders were consistent with the phylogenetic relationships among the bat-borne hantaviruses.

Other research teams have reported bat-borne hantaviruses, including Magboi virus in Nycteris hispida from Sierra Leone, Makokou virus in Hipposideros ruber from Gabon, Ponan virus in Neoromicia nanus from Cte d?Ivoire, Huangpi virus in Pipistrellus abramus from China, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus monoceros and Rhinolophus sinica from China, Laibin virus in Taphozous melanopogon from China, and Brno virus in Nyctalus noctula from the Czech Republic, bringing to 11 the number of bat-borne hantaviruses to date.The basal position of the chiropteran-borne hantaviruses in phylogenetic trees and the demonstration that bat species in both suborders harbor hantaviruses suggest that primordial hantaviruses may have emerged in an early common ancestor of bats or other members of the Laurasiatheria superorder, that includes shrews and moles.

26. Determination of the intermediate host of cercarial dermatitis in thai binh province, vietnam

Thi Dung Bui1*, Van Hien Hoang1, Ngoc Doanh Pham1, Khanh Huyen Dinh Thi1 (1) Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Viet Nam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Ha Noi, Viet Nam).

Cercarial dermatitis (or swimmer?s itch) is a worldwide occurring skin disease characterized by itching and skin papulation. It is caused by cercariae of the avian schistosome. Avian schistosomes (Trematode: Schistotsomatidae) is a water-borne neglected allergic disease. Avian schistosome flukes requires two hosts life-cycle. The free-swimming cercaria develop in and are released from various aquatic snails as intermediate hosts. Then cercaria penetrate into the skin of specific compatible definitive hosts to adult flukes. Human is not suitable host. Cercariae are also able to penetrate to the human skin and die early after the infection which caused cercarial dermatitis. However, cercarial dermatitis is less study so far in Viet Nam. The present study was conducted in order to determine the major causative agents of cercarial dermatitis.

Thai Binh province is located in red river delta region. Snail sampling was conducted in Quynh Phu district. Snails were collected by hand-picking and/or scooping method in different water bodies (rice-field, channels, fishponds, ditches, vegetable fields). The collected snails were examined for cercaria presence by three different techniques (shedding, crushing, cutting) depend o­n the snail?s shell.

Twelve snail species belonging to 7 families were morphological identified, such as: Lymnaeidae (Austropeplea viridis, Radix auricularia), Bythiniidae (Bythinia fuschiana, Parafossarulus striatulus), Thiaridae (Melanoides tuberculata, Thiara scabra), Ampulariidae (Pomacae canaliculata), Viviparidae (Angulyagra polyzonata, A. boettgeri), Stenothyridae (Stenothyra messagari), Planorbidae (Gyraulus convexiusculus, Hippeutis umblicalis). Among them, three snail species (A. viridis, B. fuschiana, and G. conveiusculus) were infected with cercaria of avian schistosome with the infection rate 0.36%, 0,04%, 0,07%, respectively. Cercaria of avian schistosome was morphological identified as ocellate brevifurcate-apharyngeate cercaria. The infected snails were found in the vegetable field where domestic ducks were released.

These finding may be noticed cercarial dermatitis is an emerging diseases in Viet Nam and the further studies are needed.

27. Clinostomum philippinensis (Digenea: Clinostomidae) infections in selected economically-important fishes in Pikit, north Cotabato, the Philippines

Omega May Sanque1, Elma Sepelagio1, Bryan Lloyd Bretaa1 and Leanne Jay Manceras1 (1Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, North Cotabato, Philippines).

Pikit is a municipality in the province of North Cotabato, Philippines that is well known for freshwater fish production. Situated traverse in several creeks and rivers including Pulangi and Rio Grande de Mindanao, communities in this municipality are dependent o­n freshwater fishing for livelihood and food. However, fish quality over the past years has been susceptible to parasitism.

This study aimed to detect fish-borne trematode infections in selected economically-important freshwater fishes in Pikit namely:Channa striata, Anabas testudineus, Cyprinus carpio, Osphronemus goramy, Clarias macrocephalus and Oreochromis niloticus. A total of 120 fishes, with 20 individuals for each species were examined. External and internal organs were subjected to ocular inspection, necropsy, microscopy and tissue digestion. Abundance and prevalence of parasites were calculated for each fish species. Results revealed a total of 17 out of 120 fishes (14.17%) were found positive in infection caused by a digenean trematode Clinostomum philippinensis in A. testudineus and C. striata fishes. This is also the first report of adult stage of C. philippinensis in A. testudineus and C. striata. Presence of adult stages were found encysted in the gut, head, brain, eyes and gills (0.35) of A testudineus, and metacercarial stages encysted in the visceral and buccal cavity, eyes and brain of C. striata (0.5). 

A. testudineus and C. striata fishes in this study were highly parasitized by C. philippinensis. Majority of the previous studies conducted have reported metacercarial stages o­n sampled fishes.The current study had isolated an adult form of this trematode in A. testudineus and C. striata fishes.The lifecycle of C. philippinensis is not well established thus, the results of this study provides insight o­n the completion of the lifecycle of this trematode o­n the fish it infects. Furthermore, future studies must be considered in order to determine its zoonotic capability of this trematode that may impose threat to public health.

28. Malacological survey and distribution of the intermediate hosts for bifurcate trematode cercariae in selected Sitios of Pikit, North Cotabato, Philippines

Genalyn Galas 1*, Elma Sepelagio 1, Janette Supremo1 (Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan 9407, North Cotabato, Philippines).

Schistosomiasis has become a serious public health concern in many tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia. Gathering important baseline information o­n the disease distribution and potential impacts include a thorough identification of its intermediate hosts and population. Despite the numerous studies in the country, information related to this in the South-Central Mindanao, Philippines is scarce. In this study, freshwater snails were investigated as potential hosts of bifurcate trematode cercariae in water bodies associated with human settlements in Sitio Gantong Saranay and Sitio Idsla of Barangay Takepan, Pikit, North Cotabato where Schistosoma japonicum infection is prevalent. This study aimed to determine the relative abundance of the host snails, and to assess the presence of bifurcate trematode cercariae in the freshwater snails.

Snail samples were collected using quadrat method. Collected freshwater snails were subjected to cercarial shedding and snail crushing for trematode evaluation. Observed trematodes were counted, picked and described under the microscope. A total of 2,471 freshwater snails were collected belonging to five species (viz. Filupaludina sp, Pomacea canaliculata, Indoplanorbis exustus, Melanoides tuberculatus, and Lymnaea sp.) from the two sampling areas. Sitio Idsla has the highest number of snails collected (n = 1,543) where the snails are found to be thriving in stagnant natural ponds, and irrigation canals. Among the identified snails, P. canaliculata is the most abundant and widely distributed followed by Lymnaea sp.. After snail evaluation, o­nly Lymnaea sp. where 22 individuals harbour the bifurcate trematode with an average of 864 cercariae.

Based o­n the result, it can be concluded that Lymnaea sp. acts as the intermediate host for bifurcate trematode cercariae under the current environmental condition of the sampling areas. The result of this study would indicate important implications of the health conditions of the people. Also, it provides insight o­n improving the current control measures of Schistosomiasis in the area.

28. Influence of cestode parasites (Hymenolepis spp.) o­n levels of metallothionein in rats (rattus spp.)

Anna Monica D. Bordado1, Vachel Gay V. Paller1 (1Parasitology Research Laboratory, Animal Biology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Banos, 4031 Laguna, Philippines)

Metallothioneins (MTs) are low-molecular weight and sulphydryl rich proteins which are detected in basal levels from mammalian tissues. MT?s are reported to be involved in metalloregulatory processes. In this study, the prevalence of Hymenolepis spp. in rats and their effects o­n the levels o­n MTs in the hosts were investigated. Rattus spp. were collected in various areas adjacent to Mt. Makiling in Los Baos, Laguna, and the cadmium and metallothionein (MT) concentrations of their tissues and cestode parasites, Hymenolepis spp., were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.

Results showed a significant difference in mean cadmium concentrations among various rat tissues where highest concentration was observed in kidney (1.931.37 mg/kg), followed by intestine (0.870.58 mg/kg), liver (0.850.68 mg/kg) and muscle (0.56 0.68 mg/kg); while cadmium concentration of Hymenolepis spp. was 1.36 1.05 mg/kg. Also, the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Hymenolepis spp. was found to be low, which was evident in the result that there was no significant difference in cadmium levels between infected (1.050.60 mg/kg) and uninfected rats (1.711.92 mg/kg).

However, metallothionein concentration of uninfected rats (8.66 5.34 ng/L) was significantly higher compared to the infected o­nes (4.292.63 ng/L), suggesting that slight changes in cadmium concentration due to parasite absorptive capacity, could lead to significant changes in MT levels. Thus, this study highlights the limit of the use of MT as biomarker of metal pollution in environmental monitoring if parasitism is not taken into account, which could lead to false-negative results.

Nevertheless, the study provides evidence that although the parasite has low bioaccumulation capacity, their presence of absence could influence metallothionein levels in the hosts. Thus, metallothionein can be considered as sensitive and efficient biomarker of cadmium levels in rats.

29. Lead (Pb) bioconcentration of intestinal cestode parasites (Hymenolepis spp.) in rats (Rattus spp.) and their potential as indicator of heavymetal contamination in terrestrial environments

Roman Fornesa 1 and Vachel Gay Paller2 (1,2Animal Biology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baos, Philippines).

            Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements in the ecosystem. The use of parasites in aquatic organisms as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution have been recorded in the recent past, however, there is a dearth of information about the use of parasites as indicators of lead (Pb) contamination in various terrestrial environments.This study aimed to determine the cestode fauna of rats and their potential as bioindicators of lead contamination in various terrestrial ecosystems.

            With this, Hymenolepis spp. from Rattus spp. samples collected in Los Baos, Laguna Philippines were subjected to lead concentration analysis.Rat samples were found to be infected with intestinal cestodes, H. diminuta (35.6%), and H. nana (34.4%), and the liver parasite, T. taeniaformis (48.9%).Cestode prevalence was highest in R. norvegicus at 68.4%.Lead concentration (ppm) was observed to be highest in rats from agricultural sites, followed by residential rats, and lastly by forest rats.A higher lead bioconcentration factor (BF) was revealed in Hymenolepis spp.than in the rat host?s intestine, kidney, and liver; however Hymenolepis spp. had lower lead BF than in the host?s muscle tissue.No significant difference (p = 0.612) in Pb concentration was observed between infected and uninfected rats.

            Lastly, a weak correlation between parasite burden and Pb concentration in rat tissues was observed (r = 0.140). This study reveals that Hymenolepis spp. could bioaccumulate lead in rat hosts. However, it may not be as sensitive as other parasites observed in other host-parasite relationships.It is recommended to conduct laboratory experiments to establish the potential of intestinal parasites of rats to influence accumulation of heavy metals in the animal host?s tissues.


Dr. Huynh Hong Quang
Institute of Malariology, Parasitology, and Entomology Quy Nhon


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